TRIPURAINFO












HISTORY

Buddhism, the major religion in the state, arrived from Tibet in the 13th century. It took its distinctive Sikkimese form four centuries later, when three Tibetan monks of the old Nyingamapa order, dissatisfied with the rise of the reformist Gelukpas, migrated to Yoksum in western Sikkim. Having consulted an oracle, they went to Gangtok looking for a certain Phuntsong Namgyal, whom they crowned as the first Chogyal or 'Righteous King' of Denzong in 1642. Being the secular and religious head, he was soon recognized by Tibet, and brought sweeping reforms. His kingdom was far larger than today's Sikkim and included Kalimpong and parts of western Bhutan. Over the centuries, the territory was lost to the Bhutanese, the Nepalese and the British.

The British policy to diminish the strong Tibetan influence resulted in the import of workers from Nepal to work in the tea plantations of Sikkim, Darjeeling and Kalimpong and these soon outnumbered the indigenous population. After India's Independence, the eleventh Chogyal, Tashi Namgyal, strove hard to prevent the dissolution of his kingdom. Officially, Sikkim was a protectorate of India, and the role of India became increasingly crucial with the Chinese military build-up along the northern borders that culminated in an actual invasion early in the 1960s. The next king Palden Thondup was a weak ruler and in 1975, succumbed to the demands of the Nepalese majority of becoming a part of India.

STATE PROFILE

Sikkim has been given many names. The Lepchas, original inhabitants of the land called it Nye-mae-el `paradise'. The Limbus named it Su Khim or `new house' while to the Bhutias it was Beymul Demazong `the hidden valley of rice'.

Today, travelers embarking on a journey of Sikkim discover a mystical wonderland of spectacular natural beauty. The panoramic perfection of the snow-capped Himalayas, the heady scent of flower-bedecked meadows, the vibrant culture and joyous festivals, the infinite variety of its flora and fauna makes it a holiday that is at once fascinating and challenging. The crowning glory of Sikkim is Mt. Khangchendzonga, the third highest mountain in the world. With magnificent snow and ice scenery it is often regarded as the undisputed monarch among the peaks of the world. But for the Sikkimese Khangchendzonga is much more than a mountain and is revered as the abode of their guardian deity Dzo-nga.

Even today the mountain god is invoked and prayed to during Pang Lhabsol, a major Sikkimese festival, which also commemorates the blood brotherhood sworn between the Lepchas and the Bhutias at Kabi in the fifteenth century. The sacred mountain can be viewed from every corner of Sikkim and remains an intrinsic part of the consciousness of the people.

Sikkim shares its border with Nepal in the west and Bhutan in the east, with the Tibetan plateau rising from its northern border. It was once a Himalayan monarchy and part of the fabled Silk Route to China. Its merger with India in 1975 has offered a window to the world to discover the treasures of this hidden land.



Capital : Gangtok
Date of Attaining Statehood : May 16, 1975
Population (Census 2011) : 6,07,688
Area : 7096 Sq. km
Districts : 4
Official Language : English
Other Languages/Dialects : Sikkim has 11 languages/dialects (in proportion to the population mixof the State) Nepali, Bhutia, Lepcha, Limbu, Newari, Rai, Gurung, Mangai, Sherpa, Tamang, and Sunwar.
Population Composition : Decadal Population Growth Rate (2001- 2011, Census 2011) 12.36%
Population Density (persons per sq km as per census 2011) 2001
2011
76
86
Sex Ratio (Females per 1000 males) 2001
2011
875
889
Literacy 2001
2011
68.81
82.20
ST population% (Census 2001) (from website of M/o Tribal Affairs) 20.61
SC population % (Census 2001) (from website of M/o SJ&E) 5.0
Forest Cover : India State of Forest Report 2011
Seats in Legislative Assembly : 31
Seats in Lok Sabha : 1 (1 Sikkim)
Seats in Rajya Sabha : 1
Governor : Shri Shriniwas Dadasaheb Patil
Chief Minister : Shri Pawan Chamling
State Portal : http://sikkim.gov.in/
Brief Intro from
www.india.gov.in
: http://www.india.gov.in/knowindia/state_uts.php?id=24
State bird : Blood Pheasant
State animal : Red Panda
State tree : Rhododendron
State flower : Noble Orchid