The early history of Nagaland is largely undocumented. The chronicles of the neighboring kingdom of Ahom in Assam notes the customs, economic activities of the Naga tribes.

The Naga tribes had socio-economic and political links with tribes in Assam and Myanmar - even today a large population of Naga inhabits Assam. Following an invasion in 1816, the area along with Assam came under direct rule of Myanmar. This period was noted for the oppressive rule and turmoil in Assam and Nagaland. When the British East India Company took control of Assam in 1826, they steadily expanded their domain over modern Nagaland. By 1892, all of modern Nagaland except the Tuensang area in the northeast was governed by the British. It was politically amalgamated into Assam, which in turn was for long periods a part of the province of Bengal.

In 1957, the Naga Hills district of Assam and the Tuensang frontier were united in a single political entity that became a Union territory. Statehood was officially granted in 1963 and the first state-level democratic elections were held in 1964.


The State of Nagaland was formally inaugurated on December 1st, 1963, as the 16th State of the Indian Union. It is bounded by Assam in the West, Myanmar (Burma) on the east, Arunachal Pradesh and part of Assam on the North and Manipur in the South. The State consists of seven Administrative Districts, inhabited by 16 major tribes along with other sub-tribes. Each tribe is distinct in character from the other in terms of customs, language and dress.

It is a land of folklore passed down the generations through word of mouth. Here, music is an integral part of life; folk songs eulogising ancestors, the brave deeds of warriors and traditional heroes; poetic love songs immortalising ancient tragic love stories; Gospel songs that touch your soul (should you have a religious bend of mind) or the modern tunes rendered exquisitely to set your feet a-tapping.

Each of the 16 odd tribes and sub-tribes that dwell in this exotic hill State can easily be distinguished by the colourful and intricately designed costumes, jewellery and beads that they adorn. The present generation of Nagas have ventured into fashion designing in a big way, reproducing fabrics that represent the ancestral motifs blended with modern appeal. Indeed, it is a beautiful mix of the past with the present,a paradise for those who are into fashion designing. This is an affluent fashion station of the East.

The traditional ceremonial attire of each tribe is in itself, an awe inspiring sight to behold; the multicoloured spears and daos decorated with dyed goats hair, the headgear made of finely woven bamboo interlaced with orchid stems, adorned with boar's teeth and hornbill's feathers, elephant tusk armlets. In days of yore every warrior had to earn each of these items through acts of valour, to wear them.

Capital : Kohima
Date of Attaining Statehood : 1st December, 1963
Population (Census 2011) : 19,80,602
Area : 16579 Sq. km
Districts : 11
Official Language : English
Other Languages/Dialects : Each tribe in Nagaland has its own dialect. There are about 60 different spoken dialects which belong to the Tibeto - Burman family of languages/dialects. These dialects have no script of their own. Tribes speak to each other in 'Nagamese' a language which is an amalgamation of Assamese, Bengali and local dialects. It is the language of the market.
Population Composition : Decadal Population Growth Rate (2001- 2011, Census 2011) -9434
Population Density (persons per sq km as per census 2011) 2001
Sex Ratio (Females per 1000 males) 2001
Literacy 2001

ST population% (Census 2001) (from website of M/o Tribal Affairs) 88.98
SC population % (Census 2001) (from website of M/o SJ&E) 0
Forest Cover : India State of Forest Report 2011
Seats in Legislative Assembly : 60
Seats in Lok Sabha : 1 (1 Nagaland)
Seats in Rajya Sabha : 1
Governor : Shri Padmanabha Balakrishna Acharya
Chief Minister : Shri Shurhozelie Liezietsu
State Portal :
Brief Intro from
State bird : Blyth ’s Tragopan
State animal : Mithun
State tree : Alder (Alnus nepalensis)
State flower : Rhododendro