Meghalaya is the home of the Tribals especially the Khasis, Jaintias, Mikirs and Cacharis, who are said to have inhabited this region before the start of the Christian era. These tribes evolved out of the migration into north east by the migrants who belonged to the Indo-Chinese linguistic family, the Mon-Khmer and Tibeto-Burman. The Khasis came from the Khasis and Jaintias. The Tibeto-Burman sub-family were the Naga, Kukichin and Bodo. The Bodos were later divided into small linguistic groups such as Garo, Kachari, Mechs, Dimasa, Tippea, Lalung, Rabha, Chutiyas. The British occupied the Garo Hills in 1872. The tribal district council was established. The tradition among the tribals was kingship. The earliest Jaintia Raja is said to have ruled from 1500AD. They were influenced by the Hindu culture. The British influence in Meghalaya extended to the improvement of the landscape, development of roads. The works for progress and development of this region is still continuing after independence and formation of Meghalaya into a state.

There is not much information on the history of Meghalaya apart from accounts of the more important Khasi kingdoms in the chronicles of the neighboring Ahoms and Kacharis.

The first written history of the state came into existence only after the British tried to construct a rail line through this area to connect Bengal and Assam that ultimately led to a treaty with the Khasi principality of Nonkhlaw. However, with the treaty came opposition, which forced the ruler to repudiate the treaty in 1829. This led to direct confrontation between Khasis and the British and by 1830s, the local rulers had submitted to the latter. The tribes continued their practices in seclusion until rulers of the region acceded to the newly independent country of India.

The region was included in the united province of Assam for administrative reason, which led to the agitation by the local population. The region was accorded full statehood on January 21, 1972.


Meghalaya or megh- cloud; alay- home; is a picturesque but tiny state in the northeastern region of India. As the state remained cut off from mainstream India for a long time due to some ethnic problems, it has been able to survive the onslaught of crass commercialization that has taken over other famous tourist centers of India. As is the name, the state receives heavy rainfall and two of the world’s wettest places are located in Meghalaya. Full of vibrant culture, tradition, great scenic beauty, and tranquility are some of the attractions of the state that can pull any tourist in.

Capital : Shillong
Date of Attaining Statehood : 21 January 1972
Population (Census 2011) : 29,64,001
Area : 22,429 Sq. Km
Districts : 7
Official Language : Khasi, Puar and Garo with Engilish
Other Languages/Dialects : Garo has close affinity with Koch & Boda language. It has many dialects e.g. Abeng or Aurbengh, Along, Akarve (or Alve) Matchi, Dual, Uibok, Chisak Megam or Lyngugam, Ruga, Gao-Ganching. Puan is spoken by Tribal group e.g. Khyniram, Bhoi, Puai and War.
Population Composition : Decadal Population Growth Rate (2001- 2011, Census 2011) 645185
Population Density (persons per sq km as per census 2 2001
Sex Ratio (Females per 1000 males) 2001
Literacy 2001

ST population% (Census 2001) (from website of M/o Tribal Affairs)
SC population % (Census 2001) (from website of M/o SJ&E)
Forest Cover : India State of Forest Report 2011
Seats in Legislative Assembly : 60
Seats in Lok Sabha : 2 (1 Shillong, 2 Tura)
Seats in Rajya Sabha : 1
Governor : Shri V. Shanmuganthan
Chief Minister : Dr. Mukul Sangma
State Portal :
Brief Intro from
State bird : hill myna
State animal : clouded leopard
State tree : lady slipper orchid
State flower : white teak