About Assam

History and Geography

The word 'Assam' as interpreted by some scholars is derived from the Sanskrit word Asoma meaning peerless or unparalleled. But the widely accepted opinion of the academic circles today is that the term has come from the original name of the Ahoms, who ruled the land for about six hundred years prior to its annexation by the British. The races like Austric, Mongolian, Dravidian and Aryan that came to this land long-long ago have contributed to its composite culture. Thus, Assam has a rich legacy of culture and civilization.

Assam was known as Pragjyotisha or the place of eastern astronomy during the epic period and later named as Kamrupa. The earliest epigraphic reference to the kingdom of Kamrupa is found in the Allahabad pillar inscription of king Samudragupta. Kamrupa is mentioned as a Pratyanta or frontier state outside the Gupta empire but with friendly and subordinate relation to it Hiuen Sang, the Chinese scholar pilgrim who visited Kamrupa in about 743 A.D. on an invitation of its monarch, Kumar Bhaskar Varman, left a record of the kingdom he called Kamolupa. Kamrupa also figured in the writings of the Arabian historian Alberuni in the eleventh century. Thus, from the epic period down to the twelfth century A.D., the eastern frontier kingdom was known as Pragjyotisha and Kamrupa and kings called themselves 'Lords of Pragjyotisha'.

Geographical Data

Population Density

396.8/km˛ (2011 census)


78,438 km˛

State Boundaries

East : Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Manipur,

West : West Bengal and Meghalaya, North : Arunachal Pradesh

South : Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya and Tripura

International Boundary

North :Bhutan, West : Bangladesh

Geographic Coordinates

Latitude : 24° to 28° North, Longitude : 90° to 96° East

Time zone


Forest Cover

35.48 %

At a Glance

National parks

5 Kaziranga , Manas, Dibru Saikhowa, Nameri, Orang

Wildlife Sanctuaries

13 Pobitora, Sonai Rupai, Bura-Chapori,

Laokhowa, Dehing Patkai, Chakrashila, Garampani,

Gibbon, Nambor, Pani Dihing, Bherjan-Borajan-Padumoni, Morat Longri, Amchang,

Bird Sanctuaries

2,Deepor Beel , Pani Dihing

State Bird

White-winged Wood Duck

State Animal

One-horned Rhino

State Flower

Fox-tailed Orchid

State Tree


Major Towns

Guwahati, Kokrajhar, Nalbari, Bongaigaon,Barpeta, Goalpara, Nagaon, Tezpur, Diphu,Sivasagar, Jorhat, Dibrugarh,Tinisukia, Lakhimpur

No. of Districts

27, Tinsukia, Dibrugarh, Sivasagar,Dhemaji, Jorhat, Lakhimpur, Golaghat, Sonitpur, Karbi Anglong, Nagaon, Marigaon,Darrang, Kamrup Rural, Nalbari,Barpeta, Bongaigaon, Goalpara, Kokrajhar,Dhubri, North Cachar Hills, Cachar,Hailakandi, Karimganj, Kamrup Metropolitan,Baksa, Chirang, Udalguri.

Major crops

Rice, Maize, Wheat, Jute, Cotton, Sugar cane,Arecanut, Coconut

Major plantations

Tea, Rubber, Coffee

Major Fruits, vegetables & spices

Banana, Pineapple, Orange, Potato, Sweet potato, Papaya, Cabbage, Onion, Tapioca

Major minerals

Coal, Limestone, Petroleum, Granite, Sillimanite, Iron ore, Quartzite, Feldspar,Clay


Lokapriya Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport, Salnibari, Roroia, Mohanabari,Lilabari, Kumbhirgram


4, Digboi, Noonmati,Dhaligaon near Bongaigaon,Numaligarh


6,Dibrugarh University at Dibrugarh, Gauhati University at Guwahati,Assam University at Silchar,Tezpur University at Tezpur,Assam Agricultural University at Jorhat,K.K.Handique State Open University

Engineering Colleges

4, Regional Engineering College at Silchar, Jorhat Engineering College at Jorhat,Assam Engineering College at Guwahati,Indian Institute of Technology at Guwahati

Medical Colleges

4, Assam Medical Colleges at Dibrugarh, Guwahati Medical College at Guwahati, Silchar Medical College at Silchar, Jorhat Medical College at Jorhat

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