ST Welfare



Tripura, once a princely State acceded to the Indian Union as a 'C' category State on 15th October, 1949. The tribals formed the majority of the population till early part of the 1950s. The upshot of partition of India led the State through a marked demographic change following large-scale influx of non-tribals from across the border, the erstwhile East Pakistan now Bangladesh.

Initially, the State Department of Welfare for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes was established in October, 1970 with the objectives  of socio-economic development as well as remove the economic backwardness of the most under-privileged sections of the society, the Scheduled Tribe (ST) and Scheduled Caste (SC). In 1982, the State Tribal Welfare Department has been started functioning as a separate and independent Department with a view to provide focuse attention on the integrated socio-economic development of scheduled tribes and their welfare as well. The State Tribal Welfare Department has been implementing various developmental initiatives and targeted schemes in a more systematic timebound manner since its creation in 1982 and more recently, new developmental programmes and special packages for scheduled tribes are implemented to meet the growing challenges with technology and modernisation.

The Tribal Welfare programmes are important components for upliftment of tribal people as well as to remove the economic backwardness of the tribals of the State. The objectives of the tribal welfare in the State are as follows:

There are 19 Schedule Tribes (ST) in the State with their own cultural identity, which includes Tripuri, Reang, Jamatia, Chakma, Lusai, Mog, Garo, Kuki, Chaimal, Uchai, Hala,, Khasia, Bhutia, Munda, Orang, Lepcha, Santal, Bhil and Noatia.

The ST population as per 2001 Census was 9,93,426, which was 8,53,345 (30.95 percent) in 1991.Total ST males and females were 5,04,320 and 4,89,106, respectively as per Census-2001. The Census- 2001 data reveals that the literacy rate of the State was 73.20 percent and the similar literacy rate for the tribal population was 56.50 percent, which was 40.37 percent in 1991. The ST males literacy rate was 68.00 percent and ST females literacy rate was 44.60 percent in 2001.

The ST population as per 2011 Census was 11,66,813 which was 31.8 percent of total population. Total ST males and females were 5,88,327 and 5,78,486 respectively as per Census-2011. The Census- 2011 data reveals that the literacy rate of the State was 73.20 percent and the similar literacy rate for the tribal population was 79.05 percent, which was 56.50 percent in 2001. The ST literacy rate has significiently increased during intra-census periode of 2001-2011.

There are 19-ST communities, and their detailed demographic particulars are as follows:

Sl. No.
Name of the Tribes
Training started
Tripuri / Tripura
4,61,531 5,43,848
Reang 84,003
iv) Noatia 7,182 4,158 6,655
Uchai 1,306 1,637 2,103 2447
Kuki 5,501 10,628 11,674
 Halam 28,969 36,499 47,245
  Lushai 3,734 4,910 4,777
 Bhutia 22    47      29
Lepcha 106 111 105
Khashia 457 358 630
xii) Chakma 34,797 96,096 64,293 79,813
xiii) Mog 18,231 31,612 30,385 37,893
xiv) Garo 7,297 9,360 11,180 12952
xv) Munda / Kaur 7,993 11,547        12,416        14,544
xvi) Santhal 2,726 2,736 2,151 2,913
xvii)     Orang         5,217 6,751 6,223 12,011
xviii) Bhil 838 1,754 2,336 3,105
xix) Chamal 18 26 226    549
 Generic 0 0 7,098
 Total 5,83,770 8,53,345 9,93,426

                                                                                                                                                   Source: - Census-2011, RGI, New Delhi.


The economy of tribal people of the State is built upon agriculture which in tribal areas is mostly characterised by rain-fed cultivation and shifting cultivation. The tribal farmers constitute about 30 percent of the farming community and control 37 percent of the agriculture holdings. The productivity levels are much below the level attained by their counterpart non-tribal farmers. The benchmark survey conducted in 1997 revealed that the Jumia Tribal families account for approximately 40 percent of total tribal families in the State. Apart from practice of shifting cultivation, the main problem related to agriculture is lack of cultivable land and poor irrigation facilities.


List of ST peoples

ST Development Initiatives At-A-Glance

ST Educational Programme

Promotion of tribal art & culture and fairs & festivals

Economic Development

Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council

Tripura Schedule Tribe Development Corporation




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