Forest is an integral part of the culture and tradition of Tripura. It
also maintains the environment, bio-diversity, land, soil, water and air
regimes. Any imbalance in equilibrium of the above components affects
the system adversely and has an adverse impact on human life.
The state has a geographical area of 10,491 Km2 of which 6,294 Km2 (60%)
is the forest area as per legal classification in the state. As per
Report of the Forest Survey-2011 of India, total forest cover in the
state is 7977 km2 i.e. 76.04% of the total geographical area. Due to 856
Km long international borders with Bangladesh, the trans-border
smuggling of forest produces is one of the most serious problems leading
to degradation of these forests. In the forests of the state, there are
266-species of medicinal plants, 379-tree species, 320-shrubs,
581-herbs, 165-climbers, 16-climbing shrubs, 35-ferns, 45-epiphytes and
4-parasites. Moreover, there are 50-species endemic to Tripura.
2-primitive plants and 7-endangered plants are also found in Tripura.
Forests & afforestation
To increase the productivity of existing forests, afforestation over
18,757 hectares was taken up on degraded forestland during 2013-14.
Further 105.82 lakhs seedlings have been distributed up to March, 2013
by the Forest Department for plantation on private and non-forest land.
An innovation scheme of 'Angan-Ban Prakalpa' for productive use of
fallow land in private holding is being implemented by the State Forest
Forest composition and growing stock
Blessed with high rainfall, humidity and nutrient rich soil, the forests
of Tri Blessed with high rainfall, humidity and nutrient rich soil, the
Forests of the State are rich in productivity and the potential
productivity index is estimated to be 9-12 cubic meter per hectare per
annum. The forests of Tripura are divided into two major forest types.
These are-(a) evergreen forest and (b) moist deciduous forest. Moist
deciduous forests are further divided in two distinct categories, namely
(i) moist deciduous sal forests and (ii) moist deciduous mixed forest.
Moist Deciduous Sal Forest covers parts of Belonia, Udaipur, Sonamura
and Sadar Sub-Divisions. Inventory report published by the Forest Survey
of India in the year 2011 gives the account of forest cover of Tripura
as follows :-
||AREA ( in sq.km )
||FOREST AREA( % of Geo Area )
|Very dense forest
|Moderately dense forest
|Source: Forest Department, Tripura.
Contribution of forestry sector to rural economy
Forest is the complex eco system providing a variety of ecological and other
valuable goods & services like timber, food, fodder, beauty of landscape,
wilderness, peace and solitude. The efficient use of forest resource for welfare
of the state and its people is of this utmost importance.
The revenue from
forestry sector during 2014-15 is around Rs.984.77 lakhs. It is estimated that
the contribution of the forestry and lodging sub-sector to the Net State
Domestic Product (NSDP) is estimated at Rs.5700.00 crore in 2014-15.
The State Forest Department manages the recorded 6294.287 sq. km. of forest
area in the State. Besides, managing the forest area, it undertakes extension of
tree cover to private holdings for better environmental management and for
achieving the following aims and objectives:
i)Maintain and improve the productive potential of natural resources,
ii)Strengthening of rural livelihood by providing fuel, fodder, timber, bamboo
and other NTFP,
iii)Conservation and development of resources base by introducing new
technologies and encouraging people's participation through the JFM programmes,
iv)Addressing the ever-increasing demands of the population,
v)Reduce the pressure on forests.
Achievements in 2014-15
1.To increase the productivity of existing forests, afforestation around
15,193 hectare was taken up on degraded forest land during 2014-15. Further,
1.047 lakh seedlings have been distributed up to March, 2013 by the State Forest
Department for plantation on public and forest land.
2.An innovative scheme of 'Angan-Ban Prakalpa' for productive use of fallow
land in private holdings is being implemented by the Forest Department since
1996-97. Under the scheme, it is envisaged to provide technical inputs and
guidance to the selected beneficiaries in raising plantation of forest species
on private wasteland. Till 2014-15, 4915 hectare have been covered under the
project involving covering around 28,043 beneficiaries.
3.For the purpose of active participation and involvement of local
communities in protection and development of forests, the Joint Forest
Management (JFM) has been undertaken in the state on a large scale based on
resolution of the State Government taken during 16th January 2002. Till 2014-15,
1000 numbers of JFM Committees have been formed involving a project area of more
than 2,60,210.62 hectare involving 1,00,045 tribal and rural poor families.
4.To provide support to community participation in protection and management
of forest, the JFMs have been made an integral part of Centrally Sponsored
Schemes (CSS) of Intensification of Forest Management (90:10), Rastriya Krishi
Vikash Yojana (RKVY), Assistant to States for Development of National Park &
Sanctuaries, Project Elephant, National Bamboo Mission, National Afforestation
Programme, Central Zoo Authority, National Rain fed Area Authority, Rudrasagar
Wetland Development project in Tripura and NEC-Bamboo Resource Development for
socio-economic upliftment of rural poor through community based approach in
Tripura. During 2014-15, an amount of Rs.1052.46 lakh (including Rs.135.18 lakhs
unspent balance of previous years) has been released by the Government of India
for implementation of the scheme National Afforestation Programme. Out of
Rs.1052.46 lakhs, an amount of Rs.992.13 lakhs has been utilized during 2014-15.
Plantation over 4,547 hectare plantation has been raised under National
Afforestation Programme during 2014-15.
Protected Area Network (PAN)
Bio-diversity of the State is dwindling at an alarming rate. Pursuant to the
need for conservation and development of bio-diversity in situ, a network of 4
sanctuaries and one National Park has been established in the State during the
last decade. One more sanctuary in Atharamura hill range is being considered.
The PAS represent diverse ecosystems and wildlife habitats spread throughout
the State. These are prioritized for protection and conservation of
diversity, both floral and faunastic. Sanctuary wise positions with targeted
species for conservation are tabulated below:-
|Name of the sanctuary
|| Area (in sq.km )
||Important flora and fauna found
|Clouded Leopard National at Sepahijala
Chariawal, Jagyadumur, Kadam, Hargaza, Tetul, Amra, Semul, Ghoraneem,
Jarul, Kanchan, Neem, Sal, Bahera, Amlaki, Menda, Kakra, Kao, Kumira,
Jirabat, Neur, Chamal, Sidhajarul, Kali, Bel, Mango, Nageshar, Kanchan,
Chatiwan, Jalpai, Sonal, Bajna, Bankadam, Peltaform, Raktanchn, Raktabura,
Kamini, Kanak, Acacia, Mandar, Jam, Bat, Bakul, Aar, Haritaki, Pukiatetai,
Titt Jam, Macherkanta/ Jalpoma, Mendaawal, Banmala, Karai, Uuria, Bat,
Bandar pisla, Loha tree, Pongamia, Harish, Medda Awal, Pichla, Kutki
(Bhata), Lotcon, Ban Barai, Sarpagandha, Bogamedula, Curry Patta, Karabi,
Batkari, Kurcha, Banjamir, Naichha (Ban), Keran, Bisjaran, Kathalichampa,
Biripata, Bandar hoola, Barak bamboo, Paura bamboo, Mitinga Bamboo.
Clouded Leopard, Barking deer, Wild boar, Wild cat, Crab eating mongoose,
Mongoose, Pocupine, Leopard Cat, Rhesus Macaque, Pig tailed macaque,
Spectacle Langur, Capped Langur, Common Palm Civet, Himalayan Palm Civet,
Indian Large Civet, Indian Small Civet, Oriental pied hornbill, Flying
squirrel, Rock python, Spectacle cobra, Golden flying snake, Cat snake, Vine
snake, Common mock viper, Oriental rat snake, Indo-Chinese rat snake,
Stripped keel back, Common wolf snake, Spotted wolf snake, Chequered keel
back, Bar necked kill back, Zaw’s wolf snake, Monitor lizard, Pit viper, Red
necked keel back, Greater black krait, Common krait, Babded krait, King
cobra, Monpcle cobra, Blind worm snake.
|Sepahijala Wildlife Sanctuary
Agar, Am, Amlaki, Arahar, Ashok, Assamlota, Marchaban, Awal, Bhara, Bajna,
Ban Kadam, Bandarhola, Neem, Sal, Menda, Bel, Langra, Michenia scandens,
Kala megh, Kurcha, Bakul, Kamini, Kanak, Champa, Bat, Nageswar, Kathal,
Debdaru, Bamboo, Cane.
Blue rock pegion, Parrot, Indian pond heron, Lesser whistling teal, Red
jungle fowl, Spotted dove, Owl, Wood packer, Hill myna, Crow, Myna, Indian
robin, Bulbul, Indian vulture, Bat, Python, Other species snakes, Spectacle
monkey, Pig tailed monkey, Rhesus macaque, Jungle smooth Indian otter,
Indian porcupine, Indian Wild boar, Capped Langur, Flying squirrel, Slow
loris, Leopard cat, Clouded leopard.
|Gumti Wildlife Sanctuary
Agar, Am, Amlaki, Arahar, Ashok, Assamlota, Marchaban, Awal, Bhara, Bajna,
Ban Kadam, Bandarhola, Neem, Sal, Menda, Bel, Langra, Rafugi lata, Kala
Megh, Kurcha, Bakul, Kamini, Kanak, Champa, Bat, Nageswar, Bamboo.
Migratory water birds, Other species of birds, King cobra, Python, Other
species snakes, Terrestrial tortoise, Serrow (wild goat), Sambar, Barking
deer, Hog deer, Spectacle monkey, Capped langur, Hollock Gibbon, Stamp
triled monkey, Leopard cat, Rhesus macaque, Porcupine, Flying squirrel,
|Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary
Am, Amlaki, Awal, Bhara, Bajna, Neem, Sal, Bel, Rafugi lata, Bakul, Kanak,
Champa, Teak, Garjan, Chamal, Jam, Kathal.
Horn bill (pied), Eagle, Cormorant, Kingfisher, Owl, Wood packer, Indian
black drongo, Red jungle fowl, Jungle myna, Common teal, Little egret,
Brahmny kite, Black headed oriole, Crow, Cuckoo, Bat Cobra, Indian phthon,
Large Bengal monitor lizard, Indian bison, Wild boar, Barking deer, Leopard,
Clouded leopard, Jungle cat, Leopard cat, Large & small Indian civet, Jackle,
Common otter, Pig tailed macaque, Pharye’s leaf monkey, Capped langur,
Rhesus macaque, Hollock gibbon, Slow lories, Crab eating mongoose.
|Bison National Park, Trishna
Careya arborea roxb, Dipterocarpus turbinatus gaerth, F, Terminalia
bellirica (gaertn.) roxb, Suregada multiflora (A. juss) baill, Terminalia
arjuna (Roxb) Wt. and Arn, Castanopsis indica ADC, Schema wallichii (DC)
korth, Mallotus philippnesis (Lank) muell- arg, Cinnamomum obtusifolium nees
ficus sp, Stereospermum personatus chatterjee, Artocarpus chaplasha roxb,
Artocarpus lacucha roax, Dillenia pentagyna roxb, vitex peducularis wall. Ex
chauenv. Syzygium cumini (L) skeels, Terminalia chebula retz., Ficus sp,
Elaeocarpus floribundus BL, Microcos paniculata L. Mitragyna rotundifolia (Roxb.).
Indian bison, Wold boar, Barking deer, Leopard, Clouded leopard, Jungle
cat, Leopard cat, Large & small Indian civet, Jackle, Capped langur, Hollock
gibbon, Slow lories, Crab eating mongoose, Other species.
|Roa Wildlife Sanctuary
Agar, Am, Amlaki, Bet, Tetul, Haritaki, Awal, Karai, Gamar, Chamal, arjan,
Ping, Simul Arjun, Bel, Jam, Sal, Teak, Kanak, Kadam, Champa, Nageshwar,
Wood packer, Small egret, Rain quail, Little cormorant, White breasted
water hen, Black headed myna, Bronze drongo, Blue rock pigeon, Cuckoo,
Tailor bird, Indian tree pipit, Jungle crow, Bat, Monitor lizard, Python,
Cobra, Krait, Rat, Snake, Spectacle monkey, Rhesus macaque, Barking deer,
Jungle cat, Common mongoose, Slow loris, Other common species.
|Source: - Forest Department,
Notification under Section 26(A) of WL (P) Act are yet to be issued for all
the 4- sanctuaries, proclamation by Collector under Section 21 has been issued
and required enquiries are in progress. The PAS are isolated as "Islands" amidst
agricultural land and human settlements. These are under tremendous stress. Man
and animal conflict is on the rise. Areas with actual and potential conflicts
with surrounding population, unauthorized collection of timber, fuel wood, NWFP
beyond sustainable limits have been identified and efforts are on to have a
In addition to in-situ conservation efforts, Sepahijala Zoo has been established
for ex-situ conservation measures. The zoo houses about 558 animals (as on
01-08-2011) and birds belonging to 56 faunal species. The captive breeding
programme on selected 4 species viz. spectacle langur, clouded leopard
conservation, pigtail macaque and binturong along with awareness promotion
efforts have been by and large successful. The number of visitors has been
constantly increasing in Sepahijala Wildlife Sanctuary and Sepahijala Wildlife
Zoological Park. During 2014-15, about 38,55,056 lakh visitors visited and
revenue earned was Rs.946.22 lakh.
To recognize the forest rights of forest dwelling Scheduled Tribes and other
traditional forest dwellers over the forest land under their occupation for
self-cultivation, rights over minor forest produce and traditional rights, the
Scheduled Tribes and other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest
Rights) Act, 2006 is being implemented in the State.
The following table depicts the economic benefit provided during 2008-09 to
end of 2014 under the "Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers
(Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006" in the State.
| Total no of forest rights so far vested
|Total no of forest rights so far vested to S.T families
|Total no of forest rights so far vested to OFD
|Total quantum of land involved (in hec.)
|Quantum of land involved for ST families (in hec.)
|Quantum of land involved for non- ST families (in hec.)
|Demarcation of land completed through local bodies