TRIPURAINFO

Administration


An erstwhile princely state, Tripura became a part of the Indian Union on 15th October, 1949 A.D., after the signing of the Tripura Merger Agreement on 9th September 1949, between the Government-General of India and His Highness the King of Tripura. It was declared a Union Territory on November 1, 1957, and elevated to the status of a full-fledged state on January 21, 1972. It is the second smallest state in India.

The state government is headed by the Governor appointed by the President of India and the administration is run in the name of the Governor. The real executive, however, is the Chief Minister. There is a unicameral assembly, and the majority party forms the government.

The administration in Tripura is distinguished by the existence of separate legislative, governance and judiciary systems for tribal areas. The Sixth Schedule of the Constitution applies to a large part of the state, which is under the jurisdiction of the Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council . Of the total geographical area of 10,491 sq km, 7,133 sq km (68%) is under the TTAADC .

The purpose behind setting up an Autonomous District Council (ADC) is to provide for internal autonomy to the tribal people inhabiting these areas, and protect their social, cultural and economic interests, through granting them administrative and legal authority.

State-Level Administrative Structure

The political executive is assisted by a permanent civil service headed by the Chief Secretary at the state level and various heads of departments in the line formations. The Chief Secretary is the bureaucratic head responsible for inter-departmental coordination, and functions as the link between the line departments and the political executive.

The Chief Secretary is assisted by the Additional Chief Secretary in discharge of his duties. There exists a department for the development and management of each major functional area, viz., agriculture, finance and so forth.

Each department is headed by a Principal Secretary, an Indian Administrative Service officer, supported by a host of functionaries. Currently, there are 26 departments in the state, as shown in the following figure.

Source: Government of Tripura (2005) Annual Administration Report 2002-03



Administrative Divisions

The State has 8-Districts, 23-Sub-Divisions, 58-Blocks and  Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council (TTAADC). The TTAADC was set-up in 1982 under the provisions of Fifth and Seventh Schedule of the Constitution and was brought under the Sixth Schedule in 1985 of the Constitution.
The following table shows the administrative set-up of the State.

Year
1972
1978
1998
2011
2016
Districts
3
3
4
8
8
Sub-Divisions
10
10
15
23
23
Blocks
17
17
29
45
58
Revenue Circles
17
17
31
31
32
Revenue Villages
871
871
874
878
886
Tehsil Offices
177
177
182
183
187
Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council(TTAADC)
Nil
Nil
1
1
1
Zonal Offices of TTAADC
Nil
4
4
4
4
Sub-Zonal Offices of TTAADC
Nil
Nil
27
32
37
Gram Panchayats
476
689
530
511
591
TTAADC Village Committees
Nil
Nil
432
527
 
Nagar Panchayats
Nil
Nil
9
15
9
Agartala Municipal Corporation
1
1
1
1
1
Police Stations
24
32
43
64
71

District Administrative set up at a glance:8 districts viz

1. North Tripura District: Headquarter, Dharmanagar

2. Unakoti District: Head-quarters, 'Kailashahar' (New)

3. Dhalai District: Headquarter, 'Ambassa'

4. Khowai District: Head-quarter, 'Khowai' (New)

5. West Tripura District: Head-quarter, 'Agartala'

6. Sepahijala District: Head-quarter, Bishramganj' (New)

7. Gomati District: Head-quarter, 'Udaipur' (New)

8. South Tripura District: Head-quarter, 'Belonia'




Sub-divisions of Tripura total-23
01. Dharmanagar 02. Kanchanpur
03. Panisagar (New) 04. Kailasahar
05. Kumarghat (New) 06. Gandacherra
07. Ambassa 08. Kamalpur
09. Longtharai Valley 10. Khowai
11. Teliamura 12. Sadar
13. Jirania (New) 14. Mohanpur (New)
15. Bishalgarh 16. Sonamura
17. Jampuijala (New) 18. Udaipur
19. Amarpur 20. Karbook (New)
21. Begonia 22. Santirbazar
23. Sabroom


58 Blocks
01. Salema 02. Durga Chawmuhani
03. Ambassa 04. Ganganagar
05. Manu 06. Chawmanu
07. Dumburnagar 08. Raishyabari
09. Bishalgarh 10. Charilam
11. Jampuijala 12. Melaghar (Nalchar)
13. Kathalia 14. Boxanagar
15. Mohanbhog 16. Khowai
17. Tulashikhar 18. Padmabil
19. Teliamura 20. Kalyanpur
21. Mungiakami 22. Matabari
23. Kakraban 24. Killa
25. Tepania 26. Amarpur
27. Ompi 28 Karbook
29. Silachari 30. Kumarghat
31. Pecharthal 32. Gournagar
33. Chandipur 34. Kadamtala
35. Jubarajnagar 36 Kalacherra
37. Dasda 38. Jampuihill
39. Laljuri 40. Panisagar
41. Damchara 42. Bagafa
43. Jolaibari 44. Hrishyamukh
45. Rajnagar 46. Bharat Chandra Nagar
47. Satchand 48. Rupaichari
49. Poangbari 50. Dukli
51. Mohanpur 52. Hezamara
53. Lefunga 54. Bamutia
55. Jirania 56. Mandai
57. Belbari 58. Old Agartala

The district is headed by a District Magistrate and Collector (DM), who is vested with the responsibility of development administration in the district. S/he is also the head of the CD blocks and Panchayati Raj administration in the district. Under the DM, there are sub-divisional officers, designated as Sub-Collectors; there are 23 Sub-Divisions in the state.

Development administration is centered around CD blocks (58) headed by a Block Development Officer (BDO). Since the start of the process of decentralization of governance, the blocks have been brought under the general supervision of the Panchayat Samities, which consist of local elected representatives headed by an elected Chairman. The BDO is the ex-officio executive officer of the Panchayat Samiti. Under one Block, there are Panchayat Samiti and Block Advisory Committee, some of which are overlapped. In 58 Blocks, there are 35 Panchayat Samitis and 40 Block Advisory Committees.

The lowest unit of administration in the state is a revenue village, known as Mouja. The number of Moujas in the state is 874, which includes 1,040 Grams (villages), 513 in non-ADC and 527 in ADC areas. The following table shows the state administrative framework. Based on the Notification No. F.40/ADC/ADC/2001 issued in 14th December 2001.



Administrative Framework in Tripura State

For governance and execution of development works, there are two distinct mechanisms, one for the ADC and another for the non-ADC areas. The non-ADC areas are alike other states, and follow the PRI system of planning and governance, which is discussed below.

Decentralization and Panchayat Raj Institutions (PRIs) in Non-ADC Areas

The Panchayati Raj system in Tripura was initially guided by the United Province Panchayat Raj Act, 1947, and 'Gaon Sabhas' were constituted in development blocks. In January 1984, the Tripura Panchayats Act, 1983, was brought into force, replacing the United Provinces Panchayat Raj Act, 1947.

After the Constitution 73rd Amendment Act was brought in, the government enacted the Tripura Panchayat Act, 1993. It provided for a three-tier Panchayati Raj structure in non-ADC areas, with Gram Panchayat at the village, Panchayat Samiti at the block and Zilla Parishad at the district levels. Gram Panchayats are constituted below the block level and consist of a number of constituencies called Wards. The Sarpanch, head of the Gram Panchayat, is a directly elected people's representative from the Gram Sabha.

The Gram Sabha is a body consisting of all persons registered in the electoral rolls relating to a village comprised within the area of Panchayat, which is vested its ownership over the minor forest produces. There are Gram Sabhas in every village, irrespective of whether it is a schedule or a non-schedule area. As per the provisions of the Tripura Panchayat Act, Gram Sansad has also been constituted at the Panchayat constituency level (ward) for more effective involvement of citizens in development aspects.

The PRIs are mandated with the responsibility for preparation of plans for economic development and social justice, and its agency functions relate to the implementation of schemes for economic development and social justice, as may be entrusted to them, including those in relation to the matters listed in the Eleventh Schedule.

The Eleventh Schedule of the Constitution directed transfer of financial and administrative powers to the PRIs in respect of 29 different subjects, and the state government has been delegating powers and responsibilities to the PRIs from 1994 onwards; while the 20 functions of various departments have been transferred, only 9 subjects have been vested in PRIs with regards to the administrative and financial powers which are supposed to be accompanied with the functions.

Each Panchayat Samiti and Zilla Parishad consists of 7 Standing Committees:
i) Finance, Audit and Planning Committee (to be known as Finance Committee).
ii) Education, Environment, Cultural, Health and Sports Affairs Committee (to be known as Education and Health Committee).
iii) Communication, Rural Electrification and non-conventional Energy Committee (to be known as Works Committee)
iv) Industries, including Cottage Industry and Sericultural Committee (to be known as Industries Committee).
v) Social Justice Committee.
vi) Agricultural, Food, Irrigation, Cooperation, Fisheries and Animal Husbandry Committee (to be known as Agriculture Committee).
vii) Poverty Alleviation Programme, Social and Farm Forestry, Rural Housing and Drinking Water Committee (to be known as Poverty alleviation Committee).